James Cowgill (April 2, 1848 – January 20, 1922) was State Treasurer of Missouri from 1908 to 1912 and Kansas City, Missouri Mayor from 1918 until he died in office.
He was born on a farm in Henry County, Indiana. He was in the Union Army with the 9th Indiana Infantry in 1864 to 1865.
He moved to a Caldwell County, Missouri farm in 1868. He was elected presiding Judge of the Caldwell County Court in 1882 and in 1890. He represented the county in the Missouri General Assembly.
He moved to Kansas City in 1893 and was elected city treasurer in 1900. He was president of the Pioneer Life Insurance Company. After serving as State Treasurer, he was Chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee in 1916. He was member of the Kansas City Board of Elections in 1917 and elected mayor in 1918. He died at his desk.